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Monitoring disease

Markers have an important role in tracking the progression of disease.  Of course PSA is used to track a patient’s disease but Circulating Tumor Cells and event Testosterone Levels are ale also used to track disease.


Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood. PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer or other prostate disorders.


Genetic Testing

Genetic counseling before and after genetic testing is very important.  Genetic testing plays an important role in identifying who is at risk for certain disease, who is at risk for more aggressive disease and often genetic testing can play a critical role in determining the best and most effective treatment options.  In prostate cancer specifically, identifying genetic mutations of inherited prostate cancer has implications for a man's risk of prostate cancer, the risk of more aggressive disease and to personalize treatment options.  Additionally, their may be an impact on families, if certain gene mutations are found it may be important that family members are also tested.


Circulating Tumor Cells

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that have shed into the vasculature from a primary tumor and circulate in the bloodstream. CTCs thus constitute seeds for subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastasis) in vital distant organs, triggering a mechanism that is responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths.